<BGSOUND SRC="http://www.mierzejewski.biz/oczyczarne.mid" LOOP=INFINITE>
Verrucose fabric in graptolites
Graptolite Net   |   Graptolites & Graptoliters   |  Evolution of Graptolites |   CephalodiscoideaRhabdopleuroidea

Graptolite Net
edited by

Piotr Mierzejewski, The Count of Calmont & Countess Maja Anna Korwin-Kossakowska
Portal of Graptolites and Pterobranchs sponsored by M.M. PLUS M. SZTANDARY
The verrucose fabric is a peculiar graptolite skeletal material known only in the Ordovician camaroid graptolite Xenotheka klinostoma Eisenack, 1937. It is composed of numerous tiny verrucae connected to an irregular net of thread-like elements of different thickness. The entire surface of verrucae and threads of the net is covered with irregularly distributed granules.
X. klinostoma the outer lining of periderm and occlusion of autothecae are made of the verrucose fabric.


Mierzejewski, P. 2000.
Graptolite nature of the Ordovician microfossil Xenotheka. - Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 45 (1): 71-84.
Mierzejewski, P. 2003.
Autothecal morphs and dormancy in camaroid graptolite Xenotheka. - Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 48 (1): 93-98.
Xenotheka klinostoma Eisenack, 1937. Llandeilo, Poland.
SEM micrographs of the verrucose fabric.
Distal end of collum with occluded aperture.
B. Details of the outer lining surface.
TEM micrograph of the verrucose fabric.
C.Transverse section throuugh the outer lining made of verrucose fabric.
Abbreviations: d, droplet; o, occluded aperture; t, thread; v, verruca; v, verruca vesicle.